Conscientious objection



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Updated October 2017; researcher Jimmy Roque Martínez. Translation: Catherine Gregory.

1 Conscription

conscription exists

Conscription or military service in Cuba is supported in the constitution by article 65, which establishes that:


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08/01/1998 1 Conscription

conscription exists

Conscription is enshrined in art. 53 of the Constitution which states that military service is compulsory and is to be performed, regardless of an individual's social status, as and when the law requires. [2]

Compulsory military service is regulated by the 1978 Law on Conscription and Military Enlistment (Ley de Conscripcion y Alistamiento Militar).

In advance of International Human Rights Day on 10th December, the European Bureau for Conscientious Objection has published “Conscientious Objection to Military Service in Europe 2017”. “In 2017, efforts to recognize the rights of conscientious objectors to military service have taken once more a negative track in Europe”, EBCO President Friedhelm Schneider said.

In October, the European Court of Human Rights in a ruling on the case of in the case of Adyan and others v. Armenia, criticised the state's alternative service system (which was in place until 2013), arguing that it was not genuinely civilian, and amounted to military service - albeit an unarmed one. The court ordered the State to pay the applicants compensation.

The European Bureau for Conscientious Objection (EBCO) held its 2017 General Assembly on 4th November in the UN buffer zone in Cyprus. The Assembly followed a press conference and a public forum held with the participation of conscientious objectors and peace activists from across Europe, as well as from the Republic of Cyprus and the northern part of the island.   


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Updated February 2017; researcher Victoria E. Giraldo


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Portugal does not recognise the right to conscientious objection for professional soldiers.

Military recruitment

With Law 174/1999 (Law on Military Service, Lei do Serviço Militar)1
Portugal abolished conscription and started a transformation process into fully professional armed forces. The last conscripts were called up for military service in 2004.

Today is Prisoners for Peace Day, when War Resisters' International and our members remember those imprisoned for their work for peace, and write to them in jail. Please join us!


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Updated August 2017; researcher Victoria E. Giraldo Issues

Military service exists

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