Country report and updates: Panama

Last revision: 30 Apr 1998
30 Apr 1998
30/04/1998

1 Conscription

conscription does not exist

Following the 1989 US invasion the Panamian armed forces were dissolved.

Recruitment into the paramilitary forces, including the national police force, is voluntary.

Conscription is enshrined in art. 306 of the Constitution, which states: "All Panamians are required to bear arms to defend national independence and territorial integrity, except as provided in art. 16 of the Constitution." According to this article: "Naturalized Panamians are not required to bear arms against their country of origin." [2]

Conscription has never been enforced in the past, and no other legislation on military service has ever been implemented.

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized. [3]

The Panamanian government stated in 1994: "(as service in the armed forces and the national police has always been voluntary)... it is thus assumed that persons who have decided to serve in such units have no ethical or religious objections to their duties, and the problem of conscientious objection has not in fact arisen as a legal issue." [1]

In 1989 the government also stated that "The Republic of Panama considers that conscientious objector status should not apply in wartime." [3]

6 Annual statistics

The paramilitary forces comprise 11,800 troops - 0.43 percent of the population. [4]

Sources

[1] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1994. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1993/84 (and Addendum). United Nations, Geneva. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1992. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1991/65 (and 3 Addendums). United Nations, Geneva. [3] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London.

Last revision: 30 Apr 1998
30 Apr 1998
30/04/1998

1 Conscription

conscription does not exist

Following the 1989 US invasion the Panamian armed forces were dissolved.

Recruitment into the paramilitary forces, including the national police force, is voluntary.

Conscription is enshrined in art. 306 of the Constitution, which states: "All Panamians are required to bear arms to defend national independence and territorial integrity, except as provided in art. 16 of the Constitution." According to this article: "Naturalized Panamians are not required to bear arms against their country of origin." [2]

Conscription has never been enforced in the past, and no other legislation on military service has ever been implemented.

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized. [3]

The Panamanian government stated in 1994: "(as service in the armed forces and the national police has always been voluntary)... it is thus assumed that persons who have decided to serve in such units have no ethical or religious objections to their duties, and the problem of conscientious objection has not in fact arisen as a legal issue." [1]

In 1989 the government also stated that "The Republic of Panama considers that conscientious objector status should not apply in wartime." [3]

6 Annual statistics

The paramilitary forces comprise 11,800 troops - 0.43 percent of the population. [4]

Sources

[1] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1994. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1993/84 (and Addendum). United Nations, Geneva. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1992. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1991/65 (and 3 Addendums). United Nations, Geneva. [3] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London.

Last revision: 30 Apr 1998
30 Apr 1998
30/04/1998

1 Conscription

conscription does not exist

Following the 1989 US invasion the Panamian armed forces were dissolved.

Recruitment into the paramilitary forces, including the national police force, is voluntary.

Conscription is enshrined in art. 306 of the Constitution, which states: "All Panamians are required to bear arms to defend national independence and territorial integrity, except as provided in art. 16 of the Constitution." According to this article: "Naturalized Panamians are not required to bear arms against their country of origin." [2]

Conscription has never been enforced in the past, and no other legislation on military service has ever been implemented.

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized. [3]

The Panamanian government stated in 1994: "(as service in the armed forces and the national police has always been voluntary)... it is thus assumed that persons who have decided to serve in such units have no ethical or religious objections to their duties, and the problem of conscientious objection has not in fact arisen as a legal issue." [1]

In 1989 the government also stated that "The Republic of Panama considers that conscientious objector status should not apply in wartime." [3]

6 Annual statistics

The paramilitary forces comprise 11,800 troops - 0.43 percent of the population. [4]

Sources

[1] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1994. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1993/84 (and Addendum). United Nations, Geneva. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1992. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1991/65 (and 3 Addendums). United Nations, Geneva. [3] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London.

Last revision: 30 Apr 1998
30 Apr 1998
30/04/1998

1 Conscription

conscription does not exist

Following the 1989 US invasion the Panamian armed forces were dissolved.

Recruitment into the paramilitary forces, including the national police force, is voluntary.

Conscription is enshrined in art. 306 of the Constitution, which states: "All Panamians are required to bear arms to defend national independence and territorial integrity, except as provided in art. 16 of the Constitution." According to this article: "Naturalized Panamians are not required to bear arms against their country of origin." [2]

Conscription has never been enforced in the past, and no other legislation on military service has ever been implemented.

2 Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection is not legally recognized. [3]

The Panamanian government stated in 1994: "(as service in the armed forces and the national police has always been voluntary)... it is thus assumed that persons who have decided to serve in such units have no ethical or religious objections to their duties, and the problem of conscientious objection has not in fact arisen as a legal issue." [1]

In 1989 the government also stated that "The Republic of Panama considers that conscientious objector status should not apply in wartime." [3]

6 Annual statistics

The paramilitary forces comprise 11,800 troops - 0.43 percent of the population. [4]

Sources

[1] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1994. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1993/84 (and Addendum). United Nations, Geneva. [2] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1992. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1991/65 (and 3 Addendums). United Nations, Geneva. [3] UN Commission on Human Rights, 1991. Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1989/59. United Nations, Geneva. [4] Institute for Strategic Studies 1997. Military Balance 1997/98. ISS, London.