Briefing Paper on Conscientious Objection and Human Rights issues in the Republic of Korea

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MIMBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society
Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO)
War Resisters' International (WRI):

Report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights
60th Session(15 March-23 April 2004)
Item 11(g) Conscientious objection to Military Service


Executive Summary

Republic of Korea implements a mandatory military service system, not recognizing the right to conscientious objection to military service and not having in place any form of systematic provision for conscientious objectors. As of February, 2004, there are 521 conscientious objectors incarcerated in prisons, and each year, approximately 700 conscientious objectors are being punished. The majority of conscientious objectors in the Republic of Korea are members of Jehovah's Witnesses, with a few members of churches such as the Seventh Day Adventist also in existence. Without exception, conscientious objectors are subject to 18 months to 2 years imprisonment. Stricter standards are applied to conscientious objectors when considering parole compared to other prisoners, and even after they have served their term, they are disadvantaged for life, as they lose their right to enter public services and their choice of employment becomes restricted due to their criminal record. 

With the North and South Koreas having been at a military standoff, anti-communism and national security has been the central ideal governing over South Korean society. During the 30 years of military dictatorship, the right to freedom of thought and conscience could always be restricted under the name of national security, and any who dared to object or resist would be subject to harsh punishments, even to the point of losing their lives. Objecting to military service, especially, was unimaginable. Since military dictatorship ended in the 1990's, South Korean society has been going through a process of democratization in many areas, and concerns for human rights have improved greatly; however, national security continues to be an issue of primary importance and as a result, mandatory military service still takes precedence over human rights or individual human security concerns.

During the past 50 years, approximately 10,000 members of Jehovah's Witnesses have objected to military service, which, as a group, makes up the highest number of imprisoned conscientious objectors to military service in the world. However, the government has yet taken any action on their behalf. The government of Republic of Korea has the responsibility as a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and it should respect the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and report the state of human rights in the Republic of Korea to the relevant UN bodies regularly; however, it has, to this point, failed to ever report its shortcomings in the area of conscientious objection to military service to the UN. The Ministry of Defense, citing concerns such as special security concerns in the Korean peninsula and maintaining equal treatment in military service, continues to oppose implementing a system of alternative services. Also opposing a system of alternative services are conservative Christian groups in the Republic of Korea, which consider Jehovah's Witnesses to be a heretic sect.

Even so, conscientious objectors to military service continue to declare their objection each year. Recently, with the declaration of objection to military service by non-religious conscientious objectors with anti-war, pacifist beliefs, the issue of conscientious objection to military service is moving beyond human rights concerns, developing into a non-violent movement for peace.

In conclusion, the main concerns of MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society and War Resisters' International are:

1. Lack of any provision recognizing the right to conscientious objection, in breach of Article 18 of the ICCPR;

2. Imprisonment of conscientious objectors as a result of this, and especially repeated imprisonment, which is in breach of the principle non bis in idem, as outlined by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in its Recommendation No 2;

3. Social discrimination of conscientious objectors after their punishment, especially restriction on work in public administration and a criminal record.

1. The Military Service System of the Republic of Korea

1.1 Outline of Military Service Regulations

Military Service in the Republic of Korea operates under a universal conscription system, according to the Military Service Act. Those who are eligible for conscription are assigned to one of two categories of service: active military service or supplementary military service. The period of the active military service is 24 to 28 months[1] and includes 5 weeks of basic military training. Those who complete active military service duties are subsequently assigned to the reserve forces and must perform approximately 160 hours of military training for a period of 8 years. The period of service for supplementary military service is 28 to 32 months and includes 4 weeks of basic military training, as required by the Military Service Act of the Republic of Korea. Supplementary military service, a form of alternative labor service, is granted based on factors such as physical or mental deficiencies, level or quality of academic achievements, special family circumstances, or being skilled in a special or unusual profession, as specified under the Military Service Act. According to Articles 26-33 Military Service Act supplementary military service will mainly be performed as public service personnel at national or local government agencies, public organizations, or in social welfare facilities, for the purpose of public interests. Those who complete supplementary military service are then also transferred to the reserve forces. However, the Military Service Act does not have any regulation for genuine civilian alternative services for conscientious objectors.

Among the total male population of 48,000,000 in Korea, approximately 690,000 are assigned to active military service duties while approximately 140,000 are assigned to supplementary military service duties, of which 60,000 in public administration and 80,000 in "designated enterprises".[2] According to statistics from the Office of Military Manpower Administration, during the first half of 2001, 4,916 men, or 2.6% of those who received physical examinations for military service, were exempted from active military service due to physical or mental deficiencies or because they were engaged in special professions or had special qualifications. Those who were qualified as such specialists could fulfill their supplementary military service duties by working as a researcher or technician at a company. All others who are eligible for supplementary service are limited to those with physical or mental deficiencies or special family circumstances, which are subject to the judgment and decision of the Office of Military Manpower Administration, under the current Military Service Act. Therefore, those who are determined as eligible for active military service are not given any opportunity for alternative labor service in the supplementary military service. Furthermore, supplementary military service also includes 4 weeks of basic military training. Since conscientious objectors refuse to receive such military training, they are rejected even when they are trained in special or unusual professions, as applied to alternative labor services. The Military Service Act only has stipulations for punishment on the non-performance of military service duties[3]. It has to be highlighted that the Military Service Act dos not include any provision for conscientious objection. The UN Special Rapporteur on Religious Freedom pointed out in his report of 2001 that this is not in compliance with Article 18 of the ICCPR, especially general comment No. 22.[4]

1.2 Social Aspects of Military Service

In the society of South Korea, matters relating to the military and national security have a very complicated history and ideological background. The military and national security in the Republic of Korea, the only divided country in the world, have been deemed an absolute necessity directly related to survival, and political regimes have furthered this concept, taking advantage of this situation to maintain their power. The military thus became a sacred ground of sorts during the 30-year-period of military dictatorship, far off from the monitoring of civilian groups. As a result, serious infringements of human rights have occurred inside the military, where injustice and corruption ran rampant. Although the society has improved and democracy has been furthered in many areas of society, within the military changes have only been implemented very slowly. It is a well-known secret that people of privileged classes have their sons exempted from military service by manipulating their power or wealth. The military is understood among the people to be a place where those who lack financial or political power are forced to go, to the extent that the system of military service has been described as "the poor man's draft." This has led to a great deal of social indignation and sense of deprivation. In fact, the extent of effect this issue has in society was demonstrated during the past presidential election, when the suspected draft evasion of a candidate's son was a major factor in his defeat in the election. 

This issue of inequality in the draft system has made conscientious objection to military service seem to be another manipulative tool for a privileged classes, rather than a possible solution for the problems within the military system. Furthermore, the personal experiences of those subject to this thus far, have never managed to challenge the system of mandatory military service for the past 50 years, and have given rise to the sense among the general public that a certain level of human rights violations is inevitable within the military.

The long-standing division of the nation, the conscription system, and the militarization of the whole society by military dictatorship regimes, underlie such social recognition of military service. And after the Roh Mu-Hyun administration took office, as the withdrawal or redeployment of the U.S. forces in the Republic of Korea has become an issue, the position that the national defense budget should be increased and Korean military forces be strengthened in order to keep and protect the Korean peninsula with the military power of South Korean forces alone, is gaining momentum.

2. Conscientious Objection to Military Service

The Republic of Korea is a party to the ICCPR. Although the right to conscientious objection is derived from Article 18 ICCPR, the Republic of Korea does not recognize this right. During the 50 years since the conscription system was adopted, the punishment of conscientious objectors has never been challenged at all ostensibly due to reasons such as Korea's unique security situation. Conscientious objectors have suffered legal sanctions and severe social discrimination on account of their objection. Despite this situation, the number of conscientious objectors has continually increased year after year, and conscientious objection has now become a major social issue.

2.1 Present Situation

As of February, 2004, there were 521 conscientious objectors in prisons in the Republic of Korea.[5] The number of conscientious objectors who have been punished since the first case was reported during the Japanese occupation in 1939 has increased to about 10,000. The recent trend shows an average of 700 conscientious objectors to military service each year choosing prison over taking up arms: 683 in 2000, 804 in 2001, 734 in 2002, and 498 in 2003.

    Table1. Imprisoned Conscientious Objectors by Year

Year

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Number of Persons

233

437

355

403

474

513

683

804

734

498

Most of the conscientious objectors in the Republic of Korea are Jehovah's Witnesses, with a handful being Seventh Day Adventists and others. 

The division of the nation, North and South, has furthered the custom of holding military service as a sacred practice in the Republic of Korea and made it difficult for outsiders to present any opposition to the military's internal affairs, so the state of human rights related to the military has been outside the concern of the general public, and cases of conscientious objection have been hardly discussed. Under such circumstances, Jehovah's Witnesses, who make up the vast majority of the conscientious objectors in the Republic of Korea, have suffered dual social discriminations not only being given legal punishment for their objection and but also being branded as abnormal citizens and religious fanatics

In addition to the legal punishment for their conscientious objection, those who refuse military service must live with the social stigma of being a military service evader and a criminal record throughout their lives, which prevents them from working in government agencies and they are often rejected by private companies when their criminal records are checked. The Military Service Act places restrictions on employment for government jobs or for public organizations on those who have not completed their military service except for the reasons permitted under the law.[6] Also, the legal punishments placed on objectors were often arbitrary.

However, the general public was oblivious even to the existence of such individuals in their society.

Of special concern are cases of repeated punishment:

Ko, Jae-sun worked as an special industrial technician at Daekwang Diecasting Co.,Ltd. in Osan, Kyunggi-do from October 2002 to May 2002. He objected to the writ for three weeks' basic military training on May 6, 2002 and conscripted to active military service on October 31, 2002, but objected to it and the judge gave him a suspended sentence for the reason that the objector might change his religious beliefs. He was eligible for re-conscription because his sentence was less than 1 year and 6 months. Requested the prosecutor to appeal to the higher court to prevent him from becoming imprisoned twice, but rejected. Conscripted to active military service on November, 2003. Re-objected to it and detained. The judge used his authority to release Mr. Ko on bail, but the case is still pending.

The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has repeatedly dealt with the issue of repeated imprisonment of conscientious objectors. Most recently in Opinion 24/2003 the Working Group said that "very much along the line of its reasoning in its Opinion No 36/1999, also bearing in mind its Recommendation No 2 on Detention of conscientious objectors (E/CN4/2001/14 paragraphs 91 to 94) the Working Group is of the opinion that if after an initial conviction the persons condemned exhibit, for reasons of conscience, a constant resolve not to obey the subsequent summons, penalties for disobedience have the same content and purpose - compel an individual to serve in the army. Therefore the second and subsequent penalties are not compatible with the principle of non bis in idem, as borne out of article 14, paragraph 7, of the ICCPR ... Moreover, repeated penalties for the disobedience to serve in the military would be tantamount to compelling someone to change his mind for fear of being deprived of his liberty if not for life, at least until the date at which citizens cease to be liable to military service"[7]

The issue of conscientious objection in the Republic of Korea started being publicized in 2001, when a weekly magazine reported that numerous conscientious objectors had been punished and there were still hundreds of them in prisons. At the end of 2001, Tae-Yang Oh, a 26-year-old Buddhist and pacifist, declared he is also a conscientious objector providing an example to discredit the bias that conscientious objection is a fanatic act of a particular religion. Furthermore, in February 2002, "The Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO)" consisting of about 30 civic groups was formed, and it began to conduct a campaign for the protection of the right to conscientious objection. After the announcement of conscientious objection to military service by Tae-yang Oh, another Buddhist and other conscientious objectors who objected based on non-religious, personal or political reasons began to appear publicly, totaling 11 persons until now (See Table 2).

In November 2003, Cheol-min Kang, a 22-year-old soldier, who in opposition to the Korean government's decision to dispatch troops to Iraq refused to return from his vacation to military service, was indicted on the charge of desertion from military service. The fact that soldiers, who should be protecting the territory and people of their home country, were being asked to participate in what he perceived to be a war of invasion made him question seriously the role of the military and his position within it. He held that the decision to dispatch soldiers to Iraq clearly violates the Constitutional provision against wars of invasions and stated that he will continue to refuse serving in the military until the decision to dispatch soldiers to Iraq is reversed. Cheol-min Kang's objection to military service, which raised a societal question about the very purpose of the military, was the first instance of an objection to military service by a soldier on active duty. In light of the stipulations in 1998 resolution[8] of the UN Commission on Human Rights which provide that soldiers on active military duty can object to military service, it is evident that the military authorities' punishment of Cheol-Min Kang is doubtless a violation of the duty of an International Human Rights Convention member state.

Table2. Current Status of Buddhist or Non-religious Conscientious Objectors

Name

Occupation

Date of declaration

Reason for objection

Current status

Tae-yang Oh (29)

Buddhist, pacifist

01.12.17

Pacifist according to the Buddhist doctrine that prohibits taking of life

unrestrained, on trial

Ho-geun Yu (28)

Member of Democracy Labor Party

02.07.09

pacifist

free on bail, on trial

Chi-yun Lim(26)

University Student

02.07.30

pacifist

on trial

Dong-hyeok Na(27)

University Student

02.09.12

pacifist

free on bail, on trial

Jun-ho Choi(23)

Graduate from Pulmu Agriculture Technology School

03.03

ecological pacifist

imprisoned

Do-hyeong Kim(24)

Buddhist, University Student

03.04.30

pacifist according to religious beliefs

unrestrained, on trial

Seong-hwan Lim(28)

President of Outsider Publishers

03.07.01

pacifist

unrestrained, on trial

Tae-hun Lim(29)

Representative of LGBT group, Korea Section of Amnesty International

03.07.22

pacifist, opposition to the conscription authorities which judges sexual minorities as mentally disordered persons

in prison, on trial

Chang-geun Yeom(28)

Graduate School Student, participating in anti-Iraq war peace group

03.11.13

pacifist

free on bail, on trial

Cheol-Min Gang(23)

Private of the Army

03.11.21

Opposition to the dispatch of Korean soldiers to Iraq

in prison, on trial

Min Yeong(25)

joy3.net, a labor culture broadcast 

04.01.26

pacifist

on investigation

As conscientious objection to military service became an important social issue in Korean society, university students who have not yet been conscripted formed a so-called 'Preliminary Objection Movement' in September 2002, declaring their objection to military service in advance[9].

2.2 Punishment

Under the Korean Military Service Act, there is no provision for the right to conscientious objection, and thus there are no provisions for a genuine civilian alternative service for conscientious objectors. Therefore, conscientious objectors in the Republic of Korea are, without exception, punished with imprisonment of three years or less on the charge of mutiny under the provisions of Article 44 of the Military Penal Code or on the charge of military service evasion under the provisions of Article 88 of the Military Service Act. After discharge from active military service, anyone who objects to an assignment to reserve forces is punished with a fine of 2 million won or less or imprisonment of 6 months under the provisions of Article 90 of the Military Service Act.

Prior to mid-2001, almost all objectors to military service were forced to enlist and report to the barracks; therefore, all objectors were automatically sentenced, on the charge of mutiny, to 2 or 3 years imprisonment, the maximum sentence available under the law[10]. However, since the customary practice of forced enlistment by the Military Manpower Administration was abolished in 2001, most conscientious objectors today refuse to enlist, and are punished under the Military Service Act. They are now being sentenced to one and a half years to two years imprisonment by civilian courts. Under the Military Service Act, those who are sentenced to imprisonment of one and a half years or more are exempted from military service in Korea[11]. Therefore, those who serve prison sentences are no longer conscripted for military service.  Currently most civilian courts sentence conscientious objectors for a period of one and a half years, which releases them from military service under the law.

Conscientious objectors to military service in reserve forces, on the other hand, are repeatedly called for military training in reserve forces even after being subject to punishment once for their objection to military training. The fact that objectors are subject to repeated punishments for the same offense is a serious matter and the total amount of fines from such punishments are of an amount that can threaten livelihoods. Recently, a conscientious objector to military training in reserve forces was sentenced, on separate occasions, to imprisonments of 10 months and 8 months. Although this conscientious objector served in prison for over one and a half years, since each of the prison terms, on its own, did not reach the one and a half year threshold, the vicious circle of summoning him for military training and punishing him for his objection continues.

Cases of Conscientious Objectors to the military service of the Reserve Forces:

Hong-gi Choi became one of Jehovah's Witnesses after being discharged from active military service in 1999 and began to object to the military training of the reserve forces. Through summary proceedings, he was sentenced to pay a fine of 3,350,000 won; five other cases are pending, and in one case, he received a suspended sentence of one year of imprisonment. Such heavy fines and frequent trials have made it difficult for him to live a normal life, and if he is again sentenced to be guilty, he will have to serve the new prison term and the previous suspended prison term together.

With regard to punishment, the human rights violations against conscientious objectors in the Republic Korea can be classified as follows:

First, the Constitution of the Republic of Korea stipulates that a defendant is presumed to be not guilty until ruled guilty, and it is an accepted general principle of the Criminal Procedure Code that when there is no fear that the accused may destroy the evidence of crime, the accused shall be put on trial without being physically detained. However, conscientious objectors have generally been detained from the commencement of investigation. Since the activities of civilian groups to improve the state of human rights have begun in earnest in 2002, the number of cases where objectors were investigated without being incarcerated has risen; however, currently, most conscientious objectors are being detained and investigated.  Furthermore, they are not candidates for government provisions toward inmates such as an amnesty, which is granted several times a year.

With regard to their in-prison treatment,  Jehovah's Witness conscientious objectors in prison were not permitted to hold religious meetings in prisons until mid-2003 on the reasons such as "They violate positive laws and evade military service, and thus, are serving their prison terms because of peculiar religious doctrines; therefore, permitting them to have religious meeting which can strengthen their beliefs is against the purpose of correction and education"[12] Such discriminatory treatment was finally resolved in mid 2003, as the Ministry of Justice accepted the recommendation of the National Human Rights Commission, and permitted Jehovah's Witness conscientious objectors and other prisoners of minor religions to hold religious meetings in prison.[13]

The practice of repeated imprisonment, independent of the questions whether someone refuses to enlist or refuses to perform reserve duties, is in breach of the international principle non bis in idem, as expressed by the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in its Recommendation No.2 on Detention of conscientious objectors (E/CN4/2001/14 paragraphs 91 to 94), and UN Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/45.

2.3 Attempts to influence legislation

 Until the amendment to the Constitution of the Republic of Korea in 1987 provided for a Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court was the highest court in the country, which had the authority to review laws to determine their Constitutionality. Conscientious objectors appealed to the Supreme Court in 1969, 1985, and 1992 claiming that conscientious objection should not be considered a violation of the Military Service Act because conscientious objection arises from the freedom of religion and conscience guaranteed by the Constitution. However, the Supreme Court has repeatedly refused to accept their claims, holding that "the so-called conscientious decision such as the objection to the military service on account of religious doctrines does not fall within the freedom of religion and conscience guaranteed under the Constitution"[14]. Following these precedents, courts in the Republic of Korea have, without exception, have handed out guilty verdicts to conscientious objectors.

However, on January 29, 2002 Gyeong-su Lee, on trial at the Nambu Branch of Suwon District Court as a conscientious objector to military service, appealed to the Constitutional Court to review the Constitutionality of Article 88 of the current Military Service Act, which provides for punishments without providing a genuine civilian alternative service for conscientious objectors and thus infringes upon their freedom of religion and conscience as guaranteed by the Constitution. The Constitutional Court has granted certiorari and the case is under review. Since then, courts have generally decided to postpone their decisions on conscientious objection until the Constitutional Court makes its ruling, and accordingly, many conscientious objectors are free on bail, awaiting the decision of the Constitutional Court. Since more courts have postponed their decisions or sentenced objectors to the minimum period of imprisonment needed to grant them exemption from re-conscription, the number of conscientious objectors in prison decreased from 1,640 at the end of 2000 to 521 in February 2004.[15]

In early 2001, there were attempts by National Assemblymen to promote a Bill to Introduce an Alternative Service for Conscientious Objectors, but since that attempt was foiled due to strong opposition from conservative Christian churches, there has been no further progress from the legislature since. Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO) has attempted to draft a proposed legislation providing for conscientious objection and thus for a genuine civilian alternative service and conducted a signature campaign in April 2002 where lawyers, law professors, human right activists, etc. participated. However, the government and the National Assembly, to this point, have yet to respond.

2.4 A Social Movement for Conscientious Objection

In 2001, as the long-standing stance of conscientious objection by Jehovah's Witness became known to the general public, and Tae-yang Oh, a Buddhist and pacifist, declared his conscientious objection, the level of interest in conscientious objection within society has rapidly increased. The fact that approximately 10,000 Jehovah's Witnesses have objected to military service for reasons of conscience over the past 50 years and that Korea has the largest number of imprisoned objectors in the world served as a wakeup call to the value of human rights which had been pushed aside for reasons of national security. Various areas of society such as the press, academia, legal and religious circles have had various debates or discussions over the issue of conscientious objection and adoption of the right to conscientious objection, and an alternative service, and in February 2002, the "Statement by 1,000 Persons Urging the Recognition of Conscientious Objection and the Adoption of an Alternative Service System," signed by 1,552 people, including distinguished persons from the media, academia, legal and religious circles, and civic groups, was published. Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO), in which 36 civic and social groups are participating, has been conducting various debates and forums, providing counseling and legal services for conscientious objectors, and promoting the legislation of conscientious objection and an alternative service system since it was founded in early 2002. By doing so, KSCO is making efforts to expand the concerns of the society for conscientious objection. In April 2002, a delegation of KSCO and MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society attended the 58th session of the UN Commission for Human Rights and reported on the issue of conscientious objection in the Republic of Korea, and in March 2003, a member of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and a delegation from the Taiwan Military Manpower Administration attended an International Conference for Conscientious Objection held in Seoul with the cooperation of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) and War Resisters' International (WRI).

Under such circumstances, even public opinions which opposed the recognition of the right to conscientious objection and the adoption of an alternative service system on the grounds that it favors a certain religion, threatens national security, and promotes inequality in military service are recognizing that a realistic amendment to the system needs to be made for conscientious objectors. The appeal to the Constitutional Court to review the constitutionality of the Military Service Act, the increasing decisions by lower courts to release on bail and postpone their decisions on objectors, and the court sentences of one and a half year imprisonment on conscientious objectors are a reflection of the social shift in recognizing and becoming more sensitive to the issue of conscientious objection.

However, the government and legislature have yet to show any effort to recognize conscientious objection and to adopt a system of alternative service even as conscientious objection to military service has increased in importance as a social issue. In fact, the government and the Ministry of National Defense have been working to oppose conscientious objection to military service. On October 2002, then-president Kim Dae-jung revealed his position in stating that "Under our circumstances, evasion of military service cannot be allowed for any reason whatsoever and allowing for such measures would not be equitable," and thereafter, furthered the practice of conducting investigations on objectors while detaining them. On March of 2003, the Ministry of Education was criticized for sending an official document to universities asking them to stop the spread of objection to military service. The Ministry of Defense also refuses to budge from their stance of opposition since it announced its "Position of the Ministry of Defense on Alternative Service for Objectors to Military Service"[16] in October of 2001. They also held a training program for current soldiers, telling them conscientious objection to military service must not be permitted under any circumstances.

Also within the legislature, the issue of objection to military service is treated negatively. When in June 2003, the National Human Rights Commission as a part of an movement to encourage the formation of private organizations, supported the production of a documentary about objection to military service, the Legislation and Judiciary Committee criticized them, stating, "The National Human Rights Commission supported the production of a documentary on conscientious objection to military service; are they trying to lend support to the movement of young people to evade military service?"

Under such circumstances, the National Human Rights Commission has not yet presented a clear position on the issue of objection to military service, despite the submission of several petitions on the issue. Reflecting on the resolution 2002/45 of the UN Commission on Human Rights which urged the National Human Rights Commission of each country to review its law and practices concerning conscientious objection[17], the National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea is required to make more positive effort to do so. Conservative Christian associations such as the Christian Council of Korea which treats Jehovah's Witnesses as heretics have not shown any change in their position[18] of opposing conscientious objection and alternative service systems for conscientious objectors.

On the other hand, conscientious objection is expanding as an important method of practicing the recently intensified anti-war sentiment and pacifism. The incidence in June 2002, when two female middle school students were killed after being run over by a tank of American forces stationed in Korea and the increasing military tension between North Korea and America around the North Korean nuclear issue have made many Korean people doubt the viability of the traditional national security policy which relies on military might and increase support for anti-war and peace movements. The decision to dispatch Korean soldiers to Iraq that the National Assembly made and passed through over two sessions in April 2003 and in February 2004 provided occasions for the anti-war and pacifist movement to expand greatly. Tens of thousands people came out into the streets and raised a united front against war and dispatching troops, and many people headed to Iraq vowing to act as human shields. However, the government and National Assembly justified American invasion into Iraq and their decision to dispatch soldiers to Iraq on the logic that dispatching troops is unavoidable and is beneficial for the nation under the current circumstances where Korea must rely upon America militarily and economically. In addition, they took measures to pour cold water over the movements for human rights and peace through the making or passing measures such as the Prevention of Terrorism Act[19] and the revision of the Assembly and Demonstration Act[20] arousing great opposition from civic groups.

Under these circumstances, conscientious objection is receiving much attention from youths who are at the age of conscription as a way to voice anti-war and pacifist sentiments. Since Tae-yang Oh became the first non-Jehovah's Witness to declare conscientious objection towards the end of 2001, a total of 10 persons who are not Jehovah's Witnesses declared their objection to military service based on their beliefs in pacifism and have been already punished or are on trial at the court. The issue of conscientious objection, which began to be brought to the fore as Jehovah's Witness conscientious objectors came to be known to the public in 2001, is now an issue of protecting human rights, and at the same time, is now being recognized as a peace movement with such human rights at its foundation.

Notes

[1] Under the revised Military Service Act passed by the National Assembly in August 2003, the periods of active military service and supplementary military service were each shortened by two months. Accordingly, since October 2003, the period of active military service has been 24 months in the Army, 26 months in the Navy, and 28 months in the Air Force. Unlike the Army, the Navy and the Air Force are under a voluntary military service system. The reduction in the period of military service was in fulfillment of a promise given by the ruling and opposition political parties during the past presidential campaign.
[2] 2000?White Paper of National Defense?
[3] The provisions of Article 88 of the Military Service Act stipulates the imprisonment of three years or less for objection to active military service, and provisions of Article 90 of the Military Service Act stipulates the imprisonment of 6 months or less or a fine of up to 2 million won for objection to military training of the reserve forces.
[4] Report submitted by Mr. Abdelfattah Amor, Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/40 (paragraphs 65-68), 15 January 2003
[5] See Attachment 1
[6] Article 76 of the Military Service Act
[7] United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: Opinion No 24/2003 (ISRAEL), 28 November 2003
[8] UN Commission for Human Rights, Resolution 1998/77
[9] Press interviews of Dong-hyeok Na, a conscientious objector, and students who declared their stance as preliminary conscientious objectors (9.12. 2002)
[10] The court maximum sentence under the Military Criminal Code was increased from two years to three by the revised law No. 4703(revised on 1.15,1994).
[11] Paragraph 2 of Article 136 of the Enforcement Decree of the Military Service Act
[12] Reply from the Ministry of Justice to the suggestion for adjusting its discriminatory procedures in prisons(Gyo Hwa 61490-24)
[13] News report of the National Human Rights Commission dated July 18, 2003, "Permission of Meetings of Minor Religions in Confinement Facilities by the Ministry of Justice"
[14] Godo Decision 1534 of the Supreme Court[Mutiny] (9.14,1992)
[15] According to the information provided by Jehovah's Witnesses, as of February 2004, 66 conscientious objectors have been arraigned without physical confinement and 89 others are on trial, released on bail, in addition to these imprisoned conscientious objectors.
[17] UN Commission on Human Rights, Resolution 2002/45
[18] [19] The Anti-terror Act whose deliberation was suspended at the National Assembly because of the strong opposition of civic groups in 2002 was reattempted in the middle of 2003 but was aborted again this year due to civic groups' opposition. However, the government has not yet withdrawn the bill. Some provisions of this law contain factors to infringe upon human rights. For example, it stipulates the concepts of 'terror and 'terrorist organization' very vaguely and also gives an authority for the Counter Terrorism Center under the National Intelligence Service to monitor and control even the legal political activity by reason of preventing terror. Many human rights organizations point out that the anti-terror law is almost not related to terror but only a bill designed to strengthen again the power of the National Intelligence Service which has been down-sized gradually from the end of the military dictatorship governments from the beginning of 1990.
[20] The Law Concerning Assembly and Demonstration passed through the National Assembly in December 2003 began to effective in March 2004. According to this law, the freedom of assembly and demonstration is in fact terminated because any assembly or demonstration is prohibited by the reason of so-called 'violent demonstration' even though it may be a trivial defensive violent incident occurring during the assembly or a peaceful procession on a major street where order-conductors are stationed is prohibited or an assembly is prohibited near an elementary school or middle school or high school or military facilities or any assembly which generates noise over a certain level designated by a presidential decree is prohibited. Furthermore, assemblies shall be reported one month in advance, making it difficult for a large assembly to be held because the place and time should be chosen in advance, but only small assemblies on holidays which are not against foreign official residence or office are permitted. Civic groups are opposing the revised assembly and demonstration law is in fact 'a law prohibiting assembly and demonstration' which infringes greatly upon democracy and the freedom of expression and planning a civic movement of disobedience.


Current Status of Conscientious Objectors in Prison (as of February 15, 2004)

No.

Name

Prison

Applied Law

Length (month)

Charges

Imprisonment from

Release Date

1

An Hyeongdo

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Nov-03

23-May-05

2

Baek Jongguk

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

3

Baek Seungho

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Jan-03

13-Jul-04

4

Bak Boram

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

5

Bak Changwon

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Sep-03

22-Mar-05

6

Bak Cheolmin

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

15-Jan-04

 

7

Bak Cheonhong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

8

Bak Chunman

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

9

Bak Gihak

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

10

Bak Gyunil

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

11

Bak Heungrae

Gongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Oct-03

21-Apr-05

12

Bak Hyeokjin

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

13

Bak Hyeongjun

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Dec-02

24-Jun-04

14

Bak Hyeonmuk

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

15

Bak Hyeonsik

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

16

Bak Hyeonu

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

19-Sep-03

18-Mar-05

17

Bak Hyeonu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

18

Bak Hyogyeong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

19

Bak Inbok

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Mar-03

10-Sep-04

20

Bak Jehyeon

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Jan-04

27-Jul-05

21

Bak Jeongeung

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

22

Bak Jeongsu

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Nov-03

1-May-05

23

Bak Jihyeok

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Aug-03

19-Feb-05

24

Bak Jinu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

25

Bak Jun

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-03

1-Jun-05

26

Bak Junhan

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

30-Dec-03

 

27

Bak Mingyu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

28

Bak Munjong

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

29

Bak Munsu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

19-Jun-04

30

Bak Naeseok

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Oct-03

14-Apr-05

31

Bak Nomin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

32

Bak Sangmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

33

Bak Sejong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

34

Bak Seju

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Mar-03

3-Sep-04

35

Bak Seongho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Dec-02

20-Jun-04

36

Bak Seongho

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

37

Bak Seongjin

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

38

Bak Seongseo

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Mar-03

19-Aug-04

39

Bak Seongyeol

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Feb-03

27-Aug-04

40

Bak Seongyeol

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

6-Dec-03

5-Jun-05

41

Bak Seongyu

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

42

Bak Seuk

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

43

Bak Taejun

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Sep-03

25-Mar-05

44

Bak Taesu

Wonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-03

4-Jun-05

45

Bak Wonil

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

46

Bak Wonjae

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Nov-03

25-May-05

47

Bak Wonsang

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

48

Ban Jiu

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Jan-03

22-Jul-04

49

Bang Jihun

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Jun-03

27-Dec-04

50

Byeon Hongseop

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Jun-03

17-Dec-04

51

Cha Wonjae

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

52

Cha Yeongjun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Apr-03

12-Oct-04

53

Chae Seunghyeop

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Oct-03

9-Apr-05

54

Chae Yeonghun

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Dec-02

9-Jun-04

55

Chang Donghyeon

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jul-03

8-Jan-05

56

Choe Changsu

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

57

Choe Chunghui

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Jan-03

15-Jul-04

58

Choe Daegeun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

59

Choe Donghyeok

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-May-03

28-Nov-04

60

Choe Duyeon

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Aug-03

12-Feb-05

61

Choe Geunyeong

Gimcheonsonyeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

1-Dec-03

 

62

Choe Gichae

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Jan-03

15-Jul-04

63

Choe Gijun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

64

Choe Gwangjae

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Dec-02

12-Jun-04

65

Choe Hongu

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Apr-03

16-Oct-04

66

Choe Hosik

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Aug-03

5-Feb-05

67

Choe Hyeonggeun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

68

Choe Hyeonseon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

69

Choe Inseok

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Aug-03

20-Feb-05

70

Choe Jehan

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Nov-03

17-May-05

71

Choe Jihun

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

72

Choe Junsu

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

73

Choe Minhyeok

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

29-Jan-04

 

74

Choe Myeongjin

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

75

Choe Seonghun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

76

Choe Seongtaek

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Dec-02

2-Jun-04

77

Choe Seunghyeon

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Nov-03

11-May-05

78

Choe Sinyeong

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Oct-03

17-Apr-05

79

Choe Yeongmin

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Aug-03

1-Feb-05

80

Choe Yeongnam

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

81

Chu Minhyeop

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

82

Do Hyeonseok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-May-03

1-Nov-04

83

Eo Minu

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-May-03

26-Nov-04

84

Eo Sehyeong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Dec-02

10-Jun-04

85

Gang Chungseong

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

86

Gang Hodong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

87

Gang Hyoseon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

88

Gang Indeok

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

89

Gang Jaegu

An-dong_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

90

Gang Jihun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Jan-03

14-Jul-04

91

Gang Jinsu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

92

Gang Jinyeong

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

93

Gang Jonghui

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Dec-02

9-Jun-04

94

Gang Minu

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

95

Gang Mungyu

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-03

4-Jun-05

96

Gang San

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

97

Gang Seongheon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

98

Gang Seongmin

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Jun-03

22-Dec-04

99

Gang Seunguk

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

24-Sep-03

 

100

Gang Songhak

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

31-Mar-03

30-Sep-04

101

Gang Wonsan

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

19-Dec-02

18-Jun-04

102

Gang Yeonghun

Seosan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Aug-03

3-Feb-05

103

Gang Yeongjun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

104

Gil Yonghun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jan-03

23-Jul-04

105

Gim Bobae

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

106

Gim Boknam

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Apr-03

22-Oct-04

107

Gim Bulno

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

14-Aug-03

13-Feb-05

108

Gim Byeongho

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

109

Gim Byeongseo

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

110

Gim Byeongsu

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Dec-03

20-Jun-05

111

Gim Changmin

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

112

Gim Changyeong

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

20

Convicted

14-Jan-03

13-Sep-04

113

Gim Chanu

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Nov-03

27-May-05

114

Gim Daeung

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

115

Gim Dohan

Gongju_Prison

Insubordination

24

Convicted

28-Apr-03

27-Apr-05

116

Gim Dongchan

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Dec-02

18-Jun-04

117

Gim Dongmyeong

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

118

Gim Dongsu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

119

Gim Euntae

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

120

Gim Geonu

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Jan-04

12-Jul-05

121

Gim Gwangeop

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Jul-03

17-Jan-05

122

Gim Gyeongeon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Jan-03

9-Jul-04

123

Gim Gyeongho

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Mar-03

26-Sep-04

124

Gim Gyeongjin

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

125

Gim Gyujin

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

126

Gim Gyuwon

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

127

Gim Hakseon

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Oct-03

7-Apr-05

128

Gim Hoyeong

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Mar-03

21-Sep-04

129

Gim Huiseong

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jun-03

1-Dec-04

130

Gim Hun

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

131

Gim Hwiyeong

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

132

Gim Hyeon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Nov-03

20-May-05

133

Gim Hyeonggeun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

14-Mar-03

13-Sep-04

134

Gim Hyeongjin

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Sep-03

1-Mar-05

135

Gim Hyeongjun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Jan-03

28-Jul-04

136

Gim Hyeonjae

Hongseong_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jan-03

8-Jul-04

137

Gim Hyeonsu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

138

Gim Hyeonu

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Feb-03

15-Aug-04

139

Gim Hyeonu

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Jun-03

24-Dec-04

140

Gim Hyoseong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

141

Gim Ilro

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Dec-02

20-Jun-04

142

Gim Inho

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Nov-03

26-May-05

143

Gim Jaehak

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

144

Gim Jeonghun

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-May-03

11-Nov-04

145

Gim Jeonghun

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Oct-03

20-Apr-05

146

Gim Jeongsik

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

147

Gim Jihun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Jul-03

27-Jan-05

148

Gim Jihwan

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

24-Dec-03

 

149

Gim Jinhong

Wonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

6-Jan-03

6-Jul-04

150

Gim Jinhui

Anyang_Prison

Insubordination

24

Convicted

26-Apr-03

25-Apr-05

151

Gim Jinu

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Mar-03

25-Sep-04

152

Gim Jitae

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

153

Gim Jiyun

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Jul-03

2-Jan-05

154

Gim Jongha

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

155

Gim Jongil

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Jul-03

15-Jan-05

156

Gim Jongmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Jan-03

15-Jul-04

157

Gim Juncheol

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Jan-03

21-Jul-04

158

Gim Juncheol

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Jun-03

30-Dec-04

159

Gim Jungseop

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Dec-02

28-Jun-04

160

Gim Junha

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Feb-04

8-Aug-05

161

Gim Juwon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

162

Gim Mincheol

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Sep-03

30-Mar-05

163

Gim Minsu

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

164

Gim Myeongcheol

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

31-Mar-03

30-Sep-04

165

Gim Myeongjin

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Sep-03

25-Mar-05

166

Gim Namhyeok

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

167

Gim Namsu

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Jul-03

10-Jan-05

168

Gim Pyeonghui

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-02

4-Jun-04

169

Gim Raehyeon

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

170

Gim Sanghun

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Dec-02

22-Jun-04

171

Gim Sebin

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

172

Gim Sehyeok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

173

Gim Seokjun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jul-03

23-Jan-05

174

Gim Seongjin

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Mar-03

3-Sep-04

175

Gim Seongjin

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

176

Gim Seongjun

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Aug-03

1-Feb-05

177

Gim Seongjun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

178

Gim Seongyu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

179

Gim Seulgi

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

180

Gim Seungjin

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

31-May-03

30-Nov-04

181

Gim Suyeong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

182

Gim Taeeun

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

183

Gim Taeha

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

184

Gim Taeho

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

19-Jun-04

185

Gim Taehwan

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

186

Gim Taehyeon

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

187

Gim Taein

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

188

Gim Taeju

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

189

Gim Taemin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Jan-03

4-Jul-04

190

Gim Taeu

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

191

Gim Taewon

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

192

Gim Ujin

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

193

Gim Wanho

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

194

Gim Yeongchae

Mokpo_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Nov-02

30-May-04

195

Gim Yeonghun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Oct-03

27-Apr-05

196

Gim Yeongjae

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

197

Gim Yeongmin

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

30-Jan-04

 

198

Gim Yeongmok

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Jun-03

29-Dec-04

199

Gim Yeongsaeng

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

31-May-04

200

Gim Yeongsang

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

201

Gim Yeongseon

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jun-03

23-Dec-04

202

Gim Yeongsun

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

203

Gim Yeongtae

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Nov-02

1-May-04

204

Gim Yongjun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Dec-02

27-Jun-04

205

Gim Yongtae

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jan-03

8-Jul-04

206

Gim Yujun

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

13-Jan-04

 

207

Gim Yumin

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-May-03

11-Nov-04

208

Gim Yuncheol

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Sep-03

8-Mar-05

209

Gim Yunsu

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Dec-02

7-Jun-04

210

Go Byeongyong

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Jan-03

22-Jul-04

211

Go Hayeong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

212

Go Hyeonyeong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

213

Go Wongeon

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

6-Jan-04

5-Jul-05

214

Go Yeonghun

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

215

Gu Hanyeong

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Jan-03

16-Jul-04

216

Gu Huisang

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Jun-03

17-Dec-04

217

Gu Jongseok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

218

Gwak Chungso

Gongju_Prison

Insubordination

24

Convicted

26-May-03

25-May-05

219

Gwak Daeho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

220

Gwak Dongju

Busan_Prison

Insubordination

18

Convicted

1-Mar-03

1-Sep-04

221

Gwak Hyohun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Jan-03

24-Jul-04

222

Gwak Jihun

Yeongdeungpo_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jan-03

23-Jul-04

223

Gwon Dongjin

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Nov-03

17-May-05

224

Gwon Giwang

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

19-Sep-03

18-Mar-05

225

Gwon Hun

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

226

Gwon Hyeondon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Dec-02

16-Jun-04

227

Gwon Seyeong

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

7-Jan-03

6-Jul-04

228

Gwon Sumin

Gimcheonsonyeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

1-Jan-04

 

229

Gwon Suncheol

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Apr-03

11-Oct-04

230

Gwon Sunsang

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

231

Gwon Suyong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

232

Ha Hyeonsu

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Jan-03

7-Jul-04

233

Ha Ilhan

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

234

Ha Seongeun

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

235

Han Changhun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

236

Han Chungsu

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jan-04

1-Jul-05

237

Han Daehui

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

238

Han Gaheun

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

239

Han Jangseong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Jun-03

2-Dec-04

240

Han Jeongcheol

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

241

Han Minsik

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Oct-03

14-Apr-05

242

Han Sangeun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

243

Han Seonggeun

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Feb-03

1-Aug-04

244

Han Seunghui

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

245

Han Taesu

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

19-Jun-04

246

Han Yeonghun

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Dec-02

29-Jun-04

247

Heo Gyeong

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Mar-03

17-Sep-04

248

Heo Gyeongdeok

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

249

Heo Jeong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

250

Heo Seonyang

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Dec-02

24-Jun-04

251

Hong Bada

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Jan-03

14-Jul-04

252

Hong Daeho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

253

Hong Inpyo

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

19-Jun-04

254

Hong Jicheol

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jan-03

23-Jul-04

255

Hong Seungjin

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Jun-03

16-Dec-04

256

Hong Yeolpyo

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Mar-03

1-Sep-04

257

Hong Yeonggwon

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

258

Hwang Gwanghyeon

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Aug-03

1-Feb-05

259

Hwang Jinseong

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-02

4-Jun-04

260

Hwang Junbeom

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

14-Jun-03

13-Dec-04

261

Hwang Sungeun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

262

Hwang Uhyeon

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Oct-03

22-Apr-05

263

Hwang Yeongsik

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

264

Hyeon Seongyun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Nov-02

27-May-04

265

I Baek

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Jan-03

7-Jul-04

266

I Changhui

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

267

I Changhyeon

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Mar-03

29-Sep-04

268

I Chihyeong

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

269

I Donggyo

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jul-03

8-Jan-05

270

I Donghyeok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

271

I Dongjun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

19-Jun-04

272

I Dongyeol

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Apr-03

28-Oct-04

273

I Donhyeok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Apr-03

27-Oct-04

274

I Donseong

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Jan-03

27-Jul-04

275

I Geonhyeong

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Jan-03

21-Jul-04

276

I Geonuk

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

277

I Gilro

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jan-04

8-Jul-05

278

I Giri

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

279

I Gwangbae

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-May-03

10-Nov-04

280

I Gwangmin

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Aug-03

10-Feb-05

281

I Gyeongjin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Dec-02

20-Jun-04

282

I Gyuseong

Wonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Nov-03

4-May-05

283

I Haeyong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Jan-03

9-Jul-04

284

I Hosan

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Dec-02

23-Jun-04

285

I Hyeon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

10-Nov-03

 

286

I Hyeonbeom

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Mar-03

14-Sep-04

287

I Hyeonu

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

288

I Hyojun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Feb-03

12-Aug-04

289

I In

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Jul-03

21-Feb-05

290

I Jaegwang

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

291

I Jaeho

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Jul-03

25-Jan-05

292

I Jaehun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Jan-03

14-Jul-04

293

I Jaehun

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Nov-03

19-May-05

294

I Jaeyeon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

295

I Jaeyeong

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Sep-03

1-Mar-05

296

I Jeonggyu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

297

I Jeongho

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Dec-02

25-Jun-04

298

I Jeonghun

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

299

I Jeonghyeok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

300

I Jeonghyo

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

301

I Jeongmin

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-May-03

15-Nov-04

302

I Jeongsu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

303

I Jeongun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

304

I Jiho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

305

I Jihyeong

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Sep-03

22-Mar-05

306

I Jihyo

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

307

I Johun

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Feb-03

14-Aug-04

308

I Jonghun

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

309

I Jongu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

310

I Juhyeok

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

311

I Junbeom

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

312

I Junbok

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Aug-03

27-Feb-05

313

I Junho

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jun-03

23-Dec-04

314

I Mingyu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

315

I Minho

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

316

I Minseong

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Jan-03

22-Jul-04

317

I Minseong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

318

I Myeonggu

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

319

I Myeongguk

Jeju_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

1-Jan-04

 

320

I Myeongil

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

321

I Myeongjin

Ulsan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

322

I Myeongmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

323

I Myeongyeol

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

324

I Namhun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Dec-02

26-Jun-04

325

I Sangcheon

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Mar-03

7-Sep-04

326

I Sanggyu

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Jun-03

9-Dec-04

327

I Sanggyun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

328

I Sanghun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Jan-03

20-Jul-04

329

I Sangjun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

330

I Seongbae

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

331

I Seongi

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Jun-03

9-Dec-04

332

I Seunggap

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

333

I Seungil

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

334

I Seungil

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

335

I Sokeun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Jan-03

7-Jul-04

336

I Sumin

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

15-Dec-03

 

337

I Taeyang

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-May-03

19-Nov-04

338

I Ujeong

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Oct-02

8-Apr-04

339

I Ung

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

340

I Wangyeong

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

341

I Wonjun

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

342

I Yeongdae

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

343

I Yeonggyu

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Jan-03

25-Jul-04

344

I Yeonggyu

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Aug-03

12-Feb-05

345

I Yeonggyu

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

8-Jan-04

 

346

I Yeonghun

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Jun-03

27-Dec-04

347

I Yeongjae

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

348

I Yeongju

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

349

I Yeongun

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Mar-03

19-Sep-04

350

I Yongho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

351

I Yungi

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Dec-02

25-Jun-04

352

I Yunho

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Sep-03

1-Mar-05

353

I Yunseop

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Feb-03

15-Aug-04

354

I Yunu

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

16-Jan-04

 

355

Im Byeongjun

Yeongdeungpo_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Jan-03

1-Jul-04

356

Im Daehyeon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Sep-03

24-Mar-05

357

Im Dongjin

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Nov-03

11-May-05

358

Im Giwan

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

13-Jan-04

 

359

Im Gwibin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

360

Im Gyubaek

Gyeongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Jan-03

16-Jul-04

361

Im Gyuseok

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Feb-03

1-Aug-04

362

Im Gyutae

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-May-03

15-Nov-04

363

Im Huirak

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Jan-03

10-Jul-04

364

Im Hyeonung

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Dec-02

29-Jun-04

365

Im Mil

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

366

Im Myeongju

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

367

Im Sanghyeon

Gunsan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Sep-03

14-Mar-05

368

Im Sangmin

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

26-Dec-02

26-Jun-04

369

Im Seongbae

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

370

Im Taewon

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

371

Jang Baeksang

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Dec-03

1-Jun-05

372

Jang Beomdu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

15-Feb-03

14-Aug-04

373

Jang Gyeongmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

374

Jang Junsu

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Jul-03

23-Jan-05

375

Jang Wonjin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Nov-02

17-May-04

376

Jang Yongmin

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Feb-03

12-Aug-04

377

Jeon Daeseok

Daegu_Jail

Insubordination

36

Convicted

5-Sep-01

5-Sep-04

378

Jeon Dongyun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Dec-03

15-Jun-05

379

Jeon Muhyeon

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Feb-03

4-Aug-04

380

Jeon Yanggyu

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

381

Jeong Daun

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

382

Jeong Dongjin

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Oct-03

29-Apr-05

383

Jeong Eojin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

384

Jeong Euntae

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

385

Jeong Gwanghun

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Dec-02

1-Jun-04

386

Jeong Hohyeon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

387

Jeong Honggyu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

388

Jeong Hoyun

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

389

Jeong Hyeongi

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-May-03

26-Nov-04

390

Jeong Hyeonju

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

391

Jeong Hyeonmin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

392

Jeong Hyeonu

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

20-Dec-02

20-Jun-04

393

Jeong Incheol

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

394

Jeong Jaeheon

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

7-Jan-04

 

395

Jeong Jaehyeok

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Nov-03

12-May-05

396

Jeong Myeongcheol

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

6-Oct-03

5-Apr-05

397

Jeong Seunggyu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

398

Jeong Seungyong

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

399

Jeong Uihyeon

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

2-Sep-03

1-Mar-05

400

Jeong Yeonggyun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Oct-03

17-Apr-05

401

Ji Hun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

402

Ji Sanghun

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

403

Jin Donggeun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

404

Jin Janggwan

Gwangju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

405

Jo Hyeongmin

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

406

Jo Hyeonyu

Gimcheonsonyeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

1-Jan-04

 

407

Jo Ilhyeong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

408

Jo Jeongnam

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Jul-03

3-Jan-05

409

Jo Junhyeok

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

410

Jo Ocheol

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

15-Jan-04

 

411

Jo Seongho

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

412

Jo Seungha

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

413

Jo Yeongbok

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

414

Jo Yeongguk

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Dec-02

26-Jun-04

415

Ju Gicheol

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Oct-02

1-Apr-04

416

Ma Hyeonsu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

417

Min Myeonggi

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Jan-03

3-Jul-04

418

Mun Daeseok

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Feb-03

11-Aug-04

419

Mun Daesik

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Feb-03

11-Aug-04

420

Mun Hasong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

421

Mun Huigyun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

422

Mun Hyeondeok

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Sep-03

29-Mar-05

423

Mun Sehwan

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Oct-03

7-Apr-05

424

Mun Seongmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

425

Myeong Jangwon

Gongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

19-Jul-03

18-Jan-05

426

Na Hyeongmin

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

427

Na Jinsu

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

428

Na Yeongmin

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

429

Nam Hyeonguk

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Feb-03

27-Aug-04

430

Nam Sangsin

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

431

Nam Seungho

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

432

Nam Yeongnyeon

Gimcheonsonyeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

1-Dec-03

 

433

Nam Yunho

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Nov-03

27-May-05

434

No Gwanho

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

435

No Junho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

436

No Yeongjin

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

437

O Daehyeon

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Nov-02

30-Apr-04

438

O Giseop

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Sep-03

8-Mar-05

439

O Gyeongcheol

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

440

O Gyeonghun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

441

O Hyeonin

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Feb-03

1-Aug-04

442

O Jinuk

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

443

O Semin

Mokpo_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Dec-02

28-Jun-04

444

O Seokyeol

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Dec-02

22-Jun-04

445

O Seongmin

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

31-Jul-03

31-Jan-05

446

Pyo Jeongwan

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

27-Nov-03

27-May-05

447

Raseongheon

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

448

Seo Cheonghun

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

25-Jan-03

24-Jul-04

449

Seo Ganguk

Cheonan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

450

Seo Hyeongmin

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-Dec-02

18-Jun-04

451

Seo Jaemin

Mokpo_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Dec-02

15-Jun-04

452

Seo Jaeyong

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Jul-03

11-Jan-05

453

Seo Jeongil

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

454

Seo Jihun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Nov-02

22-May-04

455

Seo Jinyong

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Dec-03

28-Jun-05

456

Seo Juhyeong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

457

Seo Nakwon

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Jan-03

13-Jul-04

458

Seo Seongdae

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jul-03

1-Jan-05

459

Seo Seungjin

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

16-Sep-03

15-Mar-05

460

Seok Jindong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

461

Seong Gwanghun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

462

Seong Hyeonje

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Sep-02

28-Mar-04

463

Seong Hyeonsu

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Oct-03

8-Apr-05

464

Seong Juhyeon

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

8-Jan-04

 

465

Seong Sichan

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

10-Apr-03

9-Oct-04

466

Si Daehun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

467

Sim Gyeonghun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

468

Sim Hyeonsu

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

12-Feb-03

11-Aug-04

469

Sim Seonggi

Seoul_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

11-Jun-03

10-Dec-04

470

Sin Byeongjin

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

471

Sin Jaegwang

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

13-Feb-03

13-Aug-04

472

Sin Jeongsu

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

473

Sin Jiwon

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Dec-03

8-Jun-05

474

Sin Minseop

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

18-May-03

17-Nov-04

475

Sin Minsu

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

28-Jun-03

28-Dec-04

476

Sin Seongcheol

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

 

Pending

6-Dec-03

 

477

Sin Seongho

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

478

Sin Seungjun

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

21-Dec-02

20-Jun-04

479

Son  Gwon

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

8-Dec-02

7-Jun-04

480

Son Changhwan

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Nov-03

4-May-05

481

Son Daehan

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Sep-03

2-Mar-05

482

Son Inchan

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jun-03

1-Dec-04

483

Son Jinho

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Dec-03

3-Jun-05

484

Son Jinyong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

485

Song Dongseop

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-May-03

1-Nov-04

486

Song Hakgi

Pyeongtaek_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

17-Oct-03

17-Apr-05

487

Song Hyeonggeun

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

23-Jun-03

23-Dec-04

488

Song Min

Jeonju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Jul-03

21-Jan-05

489

Song Siyeong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

490

U Changgeun

Busan_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

491

Won Jongmin

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-02

4-Jun-04

492

Yang Byeongchan

Yeongdeungpo_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

14-Jun-03

13-Dec-04

493

Yang Chungsil

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

29-Dec-03

28-Jun-05

494

Yang Eunseok

Cheongju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

24-Oct-03

23-Apr-05

495

Yang Seongeun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

496

Yeo Minseong

Daegu_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

3-Dec-02

2-Jun-04

497

Yeo Seongyong

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

498

Yeom Jaeseop

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

30-Sep-03

29-Mar-05

499

Yeom Munsu

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

500

Yu Daegeun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

501

Yu Geumsang

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

502

Yu Gildong

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

503

Yu Jaechun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

504

Yu Junsang

Gangneung_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

 

 

505

Yu Seunghyeon

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

5-Dec-02

4-Jun-04

506

Yu Seungjun

Daejeon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

22-Oct-02

26-Mar-04

507

Yuk Geunse

Uijeongbu_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Jul-03

8-Jan-05

508

Yun Chan

Incheon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

4-Dec-02

3-Jun-04

509

Yun Changgyu

Chuncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

510

Yun Changhun

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

511

Yun Gyeongmin

Masan_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

512

Yun Hyeonguk

Suncheon_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

9-Aug-03

8-Feb-05

513

Yun Sangyeon

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

 

Pending

15-Jan-04

 

514

Yun Sehun

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Apr-03

1-Oct-04

515

Yun Suhwak

Suwon_Jail

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

516

Yun Yeongsu

Yeoju_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

1-Jan-03

1-Jul-04

517

Choi Junho

Hongseong_Prison

Military Service law

18

Convicted

 

 

518

Yun Yeongcheol

Yeujeongbu_Prison

Insubordination

30

Convicted



519

Im Hyeujae

Yeoju_Prison

Insubordination

18

Convicted



520

Gang Cheolmin

The army_Prison

Desertion


Pending

28-Nov-03


521

Yeom Changeun

Seongdong_Jail

Military Service law


Pending

27-Jan-04


Position of the Ministry of Defense Concerning Alternative Service

for Conscientious Objectors

October 23, 2001

The Ministry of Justice makes clear its standpoint as follows on the conscientious objection of a specific religious group with which the media are dealing as a social issue, how it affects the national defense and the common sense of the Korean society on the obligation of military service.

The obligation of military service forms a basis of the democratic civil awareness that is "citizens can exist as long as the State exists", and also reflects a fundamental social agreement for the existence of a State. We have enjoyed freedom and happiness despite numerous invasions from other countries because of the sacrifices of common and virtuous consciences, and because of their performing duties as a citizen even now.

But, as an opinion, which insists that conscientious objectors should be permitted an alternative service for several reasons such as the prevention of increasing criminals, the protection of minorities' human rights, etc., is gaining power, this matter is being misunderstood as a matter related to human rights and the security of national benefit.

The military service system was decided based on various factors such as political and economic situations, social and cultural traditions, and defense conditions of a country. However, conscientious objectors in Korea are requiring a special favor of exemption from the obligatory military service including the basic military training and the 8-year reserve service, without considering our special defense situation of the divided Korean peninsula and the people's expectation for the implementation of impartial obligatory military service. The conscientious objectors are insisting that if the period of alternative service is long and they are allowed to serve in poor and hard fields, the fairness of service will be respected. But we should keep in mind that it is not a matter of service period but a matter of country's existence related to this question "who will perform a military service risking his life?".

Especially, the Republic of Korea has lots of various religions comparing to other countries, and the Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion and also stipulates that everyone should not be treated 'discriminately' and also should not receive a 'special favor'. Recently, social concerns about conscientious objection and opposition to conscription are spreading through many meetings and international joint seminars. But we should consider the question, "how can we safeguard the conscience and morale of soldiers who are keeping the basic promise as a citizen of a democratic country for the security of the nation even now?".

In conclusion, the objection to military service is an objection to the basic duty to keep our freedom and rights under our special defense situation of the divided Korean peninsula. Therefore the Ministry of Justice makes sure that any alternative service for conscientious objectors cannot be accepted under the present defense situation and conscription system not only because it will disturb the fairness of obligatory military service system but also because it will disturb the unification of people due to the dispute of a special favor for a specific group.

Statement of the Christian Council of Korea

June 1, 2001

We, the Christian Council of Korea, strongly object to the legislation of an alternative service system for 'Jehovah's Witnesses' who object to the obligatory military service.

Recently, Jeong-Bae Cheon(assemblyman of the Millennium Democratic Party) and Yeong-Dal Jang(assemblyman of the Grand National Party) are preparing for presenting a bill on a so-called 'alternative service system' for conscientious objectors based on their beliefs, which would permit them to perform public services instead of being punished and extend the period of their service term. We, Korean churches, object to this legislation on the adoption of alternative service system and the revision of the Military Service Act, which would endanger our nation and foster a sense of social incongruity.

According to recent television programs of KBS and MBC and the articles of 'Hankyorye 21', it was shown that 'Jehovah's Witnesses' are maneuvering the movements behind and it is sure that the legislation is a special favor for them. Everybody knows that 'Jehovah's Witnesses' is a heresy wearing a mask of Christianity and has caused social problems such as 'objection to being armed(evasion of military service)', 'objection to blood transfusion', 'objection to saluting the national flag', etc.

The reason why Jehovah's Witnesses object to military service is because they regard nations and governments as organizations of Satan. If they insist that they cannot participate in wars killing people and be armed because of their conscience based on their religious beliefs, they are deceiving their own conscience. An opinion, which considers Jehovah's Witnesses as conscientious religionists conniving at their bad effects by insisting the freedom of religion and the guarantee of minorities' human rights, is very dangerous.

This legislation will cause big ill effects. It is because there are religions prohibiting killing lives, any religion could make a theory to object to conscription order or war, and it is expected that a new religion that takes advantage of objection rights would appear. And, since nobody can prohibit anyone to convert his/her religion, there are many possibilities that draft dodgers make bad use of the alternative service system.

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