Mining, militarization and criminalization of social protest in Latin America

Cesar Padilla, Observatory of Mining Conflicts in Latin America, OCMAL

It is not news to say that extractivism in Latin America has been imposing an increasingly deeper model of extraction and export. The competition to be a destination of mining, oil-reserves, forestry or fishing investment is a characteristic of the majority of the countries in the region.

However, extractavism is receiving increasing criticism from broad sections of society including academia and social movements.

The Yasuní in Ecuador: A model for nonviolent resistance

By Xavier León Vega

In Ecuador, antimilitarist and environmental activists are currently working together in a way that allows us to imagine a post-extraction society. Since the 1970s, the country has been heavily dependent on petroleum extraction in order to finance its budget and achieve sought-after 'development', as defined by the Western world view.

This has led to Ecuador depending on petroleum for almost 35% of its income. (El Telégrafo, 2012) This model based on extraction has not taken into consideration the environmental and social costs in some areas of the country, displacing and contaminating indigenous and rural communities in the areas where petroleum is extracted.

Ecuador and Military Power

Many of us have seen or heard about the events on 30 September in Ecuador, a day where, quite simply, the world was turned on its head. Police officers burning tyres and throwing stones, taking over the hospital where the President had been allegedly “sequestered”.

What happened that day?

"Clean Up Ecuador"

About the campaign

Chevron, the US Oil company, is embroiled in a lawsuit in the Ecuadorian Amazon, the roots of which date back over 40 years to Texaco's oil operations in the region. The suit alleges, in essence, that Texaco (now owned by Chevron), which produced oil in Ecuador from 1964 to 1990, caused the largest oil-related environmental catastrophe in the world. The region's soil and water are contaminated with toxic chemicals due to Texaco's completely inadequate waste management practices, implemented to save money and with the expectation that the company would never be taken to task for them.

Ecuador – series of protests against large-scale mining

During January (2009), Ecuador was the scene of protests against a new mining law that allows and promotes large-scale mining and open pit mining - carried out by big multinationals. This mining will cause great damage to the life of the indigenous Amazonians, affecting access to water and generally degrading the environment.

Ibero-American Convention on Young People's Rights recognises right to conscientious objection

The Ibero-American Convention on Young People's Rights, which entered into force on 1 March 2008, explicitly recognises the right to conscientious objection. Article 12 of the Convention reads: "Young people have the right to form a conscientious objection against compulsory military service." It also includes a commitment of states to create legal instruments to safeguard this right, and to progressively end compulsory military service.

We don't need another war

Statement by Latin American antimilitarists

We don't need another war. We, conscientious objectors and antimilitarists from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and all Latin America and the Caribbean, united, emphatically refuse a military escalation leading to a war that, once more, will try to divide us. With hunger, corruption, extreme militarism, shameless military spending, civil insecurity, the continual assault on human rights by our governments, we already have enough without being given another armed conflict.

Transnationals and militarization in Ecuador

During the last weeks of November and during most of December of 2007 a state of emergency (militarization of the zone) was declared in the Province of Orellana in the Amazon region of Ecuador, due specifically to the actions of the inhabitants of the Dayuma settlement who have raise up in protest because of the situation of abandonment on the part of the Ecuadorian government.

This militarization and repression has lead to various arrests and unlawful entry into homes of the residents, violating their Human Rights, only because they demanded that their basic needs be met.

Ecuador: Oil corporations helping to militarise the Orellana province

During the first two weeks of December, a state of emergency was declared in the Orellana Province in the Amazon region of Ecuador. This state of emergency is carried out through the militarisation of Orellana which took place after representatives of the town of Dayuma (area in the country that brings in more resources to the nation) started protesting about the complete abandonment from the government in which they live, as they have almost no access to any public services. What is the main reason behind for the
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